Macedonia

Macedonia

Efficiency-Driven Economy
Population: 2.1 million
GDP: $9.9 billion
GDP Per Capita: $4,787
SME Contribution to GDP: 64%

Macedonia Reports

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  • Year of publication: 2014
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: Macedonian
  • Upload date: 2015-03-27

  • In 2013, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) was conducted in Macedonia for the fourth time, based on the methodology of Babson College and London Business School. It included a telephone survey with 2.000 respondents aged 18 to 64, measuring their perceptions and attitudes towards entrepreneurship, their entrepreneurial activities and aspirations. In addition, 37 national experts were interviewed, contributing to the analyses on the framework conditions for entrepreneurship. This report presents the trends in relevant indicators for Macedonia for 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2013, including comparative analysis with the countries of the region: Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and the average of the EU countries.
    The Entrepreneurial perceptions reflect the attitudes towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, the opportunities of starting a business, possessing skills and experience, the intentions to start a business and other indicators. Every third respondent believes that there are good opportunities to start a business in the next 6 months. More than half of the respondents consider that they have the required knowledge to starting up a business. In general, in Macedonia there are positive attitudes regarding entrepreneurship as a career option, people consider that the entrepreneurs enjoy a high status in the society and consider that there is enough media attention for the entrepreneurship. Compared to the countries in the region and the average of the EU countries, in Macedonia, most of the respondents (37.2%) think that there are good opportunities of starting up a new business, most of them (29.1%) plan on starting their own business in the next 3 years, and 69.5% consider that entrepreneurship is a good option for career.
    The section for entrepreneurial activity examines to which degree people undertake new business activities, and why do they stop doing business. The entrepreneurial activity is measured through the key index TEA (Total Early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity). TEA index in 2013 in Macedonia is 6.63%, where 3.35% are nascent entrepreneurs, (those who have business activities approximately up to 3 months), and 3,53% are new (those who have business activities up to 3,5 years). GEM analyses the characteristics of the entrepreneurship in the early stage and makes a difference between necessity-driven and opportunity-driven entrepreneurship. In Macedonia in 2013 most entrepreneurs are driven by necessity (60,98%), and 22.95% said that they are motivated by the perceived opportunities. Unlike Macedonia, in Slovenia, Croatia and the countries of EU, the entrepreneurs in the early stage are much more motivated from the perceived opportunities than necessity. In Macedonia most of the entrepreneurs are men, aged 25 to 34, with a higher level of education and income. In 2013, 7.29% of the respondents said that they are owners or managers of already established businesses (with business activities over 3,5 years). The main reason for business discontinuation this year is the unprofitable business and the problem with the access to finance.
    Entrepreneurial aspirations describe the qualitative nature of the entrepreneurial activities through examination of the aspirations for growth, innovation and towards the external market. In Macedonia 59% of the entrepreneurs in the early stage expect to employ up to 5 people in the next 5 years, 23% expect to employ from 6 to 19 people, and 18% expect to employ more than 20 people. In 2013 the innovation rate in Macedonia is 13.82% in TEA businesses, and 4.23% in the established businesses. In Macedonia most of the enterprises in the early stage have responded they have 1% to 25% of foreign costumers, which defines their aspiration towards the external markets.
    Furthermore, the GEM report includes analyses on the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions, through the survey conducted with national experts. These analysis gives an insight into the ways these nine areas support or limit the development of entrepreneurial activities. Those areas are: finance, government policies, government entrepreneurship programmes, entrepreneurial education and training, R&D Transfer, internal market openness, physical infrastructure for entrepreneurship, commercial and legal infrastructure for entrepreneurship, cultural/social norms.

  • URL: http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49070
GEM Macedonia 2013 Report
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2013
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: Macedonian
  • Upload date: 2015-03-27

  • For third time in a row, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) was implemented in Macedonia, according to the established methodology of Babson College and London School of Business. The survey encompassed a telephone survey of 2,003 respondents aged 18-64, aiming to explore their perceptions and stances on entrepreneurship. Additionally, 30 national experts were surveyed in order to contribute to the contextual analysis for entrepreneurship promotion.
    Entrepreneurial perceptions reflect attitudes towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, opportunities and risks for starting business, possessing skills and experience, as well as other indicators. Almost every third respondent feels that there will be in the next 6 months good opportunities for starting business, whereas every second respondent is of opinion that he/she has the required knowledge and skills for starting business. According to the last indicator, Macedonia is a leader compared to other countries in the region and the EU. 39% from the respondents which feel that there will be in the next 6 months good opportunities for starting business, list fear of failure as a reason for preventing them from starting business. On the other hand, 28% from them would start business in the next 3 years. More than 70% feel that entrepreneurship is preferable career option whereas 67% feel that entrepreneurs enjoy high status in the society. Compared to 2008, when the first survey GEM was performed in Macedonia, the last two indicators register decline of 10 and 5 percent points, respectively.
    The section on entrepreneurial activity examines to which degree do people undertake new business activities, as well as why they quit the business. The entrepreneurial activity is measured through the main index TEA (Total Early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity). This index stands at 6.97% for 2012. It is comprised of 3.73% of nascent entrepreneurs (those who have business activities up to 3 months) and 3.24% of new entrepreneurs (with business activities up to 3.5 years). This index is in line with the indices of other countries in the region, as well as the unweighted EU average. GEM makes distinction between entrepreneurship motivated by opportunity and necessity. In Macedonia, 52% from the entrepreneurs have stated that they are motivated by necessity, whereas 29% are motivated by opportunity. In 2012, as well as in the previous surveys, the profile of the typical entrepreneur is male, aged 25-34, with higher education and higher income level. On a similar level as the TEA Index, 6.73% from the respondents declared to be owners or managers of already established businesses (with business operations exceeding 3.5 years). This year as well, for most commonly mentioned reasons for ending business activities are: unprofitability of the business and financing problems.
    The entrepreneurial aspirations provide qualitative nature of the entrepreneurial activity through examining the growth aspirations, orientations towards innovation and towards external market. In Macedonia, 60% from entrepreneurs in early stage expect to employ up to 5 persons in the next 5 years, whereas 12% expect to employ up to 20 persons. At the same time, 20% from the early-stage entrepreneurs have aspirations towards innovation, while 26% are exposed to external markets for sale of their products and services.
    Additionally, the GEM report includes an analysis of the environment for entrepreneurship support, through surveying national experts. This analysis provides insight into the 9 defined areas that either support or limit the development of the entrepreneurial activities. These areas are: finance, government policies, government programmes, entrepreneurial education and training, transfer of research and development, commercial and legal infrastructure, openness of domestic market, physical infrastructure and cultural/social norms.

  • URL: http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/48756
GEM Macedonia 2012 Report
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GEM Macedonia 2009 Report
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GEM Macedonia 2008 Report
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