Canada

Institution: The Centre for Innovation Studies (THECIS)
Survey Vendor: Nielsen Opinion Quest Inc.
Funders: Listed alphabetically:

Futurpreneur

Government of Alberta

Government of Nova Scotia

Government of Ontario

Government of Quebec

International Development Research Centre (IDRC)

Ryerson University

Simon Fraser University/CPROST
Key Indicators
TEA: 13.0%
 
Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity: percentage of 18-64 population who are either a nascent entrepreneur or owner-manager of a new business
Established Business Ownership: 9.5%
 
Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently an owner-manager of an established business, i.e., owning and managing a running business that has paid salaries, wages, or any other payments to the owners for more than 42 months
Perceived Opportunities: 42%
 
Percentage of 18-64 population (individuals involved in any stage of entrepreneurial activity excluded) who see good opportunities to start a firm in the area where they live
Perceived Capabilities: 47%
 
Percentage of 18-64 population (individuals involved in any stage of entrepreneurial activity excluded) who believe they have the required skills and knowledge to start a business
Entrepreneurial Intention: 16.7%
 
Percentage of 18-64 population (individuals involved in any stage of entrepreneurial activity excluded) who are latent entrepreneurs and who intend to start a business within three years
Fear of Failure: 36%
 
Percentage of 18-64 population (individuals involved in any stage of entrepreneurial activity excluded) who indicate that fear of failure would prevent them from setting up a business

Vibrant entrepreneurship, with an early stage rate virtually tied with the US, and leading all other G7 countries


Most recent data: 2014


The Canadian population offers a highly supportive culture for entrepreneurship; it is regarded as a good career choice. Successful entrepreneurs enjoy high status and Canadian media are seen to report fully on entrepreneurship.  Conviction that there is opportunity and that the skills and knowledge required are widely distributed leads to a low rate of Canadians inhibited by fear of failure.

In this climate, the TEA rate has grown to its present leadership position, with opportunity-driven entrepreneurial activity (those pursuing an opportunity) leading necessity-driven activity (those with no other option for work) by a ratio of 5:1. The rate among women has risen from half that of men to two-thirds and is a major factor in growth.

The GEM Canada analysis is designed to identify innovative and productive entrepreneurship that can promote economic growth, job creation, sustainability, and quality of life. In common with most other GEM countries the largest amount of entrepreneurship occurs in consumer oriented services, just ahead of business oriented services.

Healthy fractions of entrepreneurs aspire to 50% growth and more than 10 jobs in five years (>20%). More than 30% plan to introduce new products, and nearly 20% expect more than 25% export customers, all suggesting ambitious innovators.

Enablers and Constraints


Expert appraisal rates physical infrastructure and the social image of entrepreneur as the most favourable framework conditions for entrepreneurship in Canada. Certainly the social image is a key source of the favourable culture.

Major weaknesses are identified in capacity to transfer knowledge from R&D to small and growing firms, and in the attention to entrepreneurship in the education systems.


Initiatives Supporting Entrepreneurship


There are indications that a new interest in entrepreneurship is emerging in the post-secondary education sector.


Trends Over Time




Challenges for the Future


Future challenges for entrepreneurship in Canada are to support the continuation of the increase in participation by women, and to support an innovation oriented promotion of entrepreneurial thinking in the education systems.

Canada Reports

Name
Report information
pdf
GEM Canada 2014 Report - Quebec
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2014
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2015-06-01

  • Canada's rate of entrepreneurship remains very high among innovation driven economies, just behind the US and on a par with Australia. Public support for entrepreneurship is very strong, and the rate of female entrepreneurship is similar to last years, at two thirds the male rate. The weak area for Canada is EEA (Entrepreneurial Employees Activity) where the rate is considerable below that shown by the US, UK and Australia.
  • URL: http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49164
GEM Canada 2014 Report
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2014
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2015-03-27

  • Results for 2013 (Canada and BC)
    The data indicates:
    • BC is in the middle for Canadian provinces in the perception of
    good business opportunities;
    • BC is at the high end for intentions to start a new business;
    • 1st generation immigrants to BC start a new business at about the
    same rate as 1st generation non-immigrants, which is higher that
    the BC Total early stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) rate;
    • BC has a higher percentage of its population owning businesses
    established for more than 42 months than the rest of Canada; and
    • Canada and BC rank high in comparison with most developed
    economies in terms of TEA. TEA is a measure of the degree of
    entrepreneurship in an economy. The indicator is derived from a
    number of variables collected through the APS.

  • URL: http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/48925
GEM Canada 2013 Report - British Columbia
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2014
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2015-06-23

  • Alberta exhibits exceptionally high levels of entrepreneurship for an innovation driven economy, with a TEA rate of 18.1%. The weak spot is intrapreneurship (EEA) where the rate is significantly below that of the US, UK or Australia.
  • URL: http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49186
GEM Canada 2014 Report - Alberta
Report information
pdf
  • Year of publication: 2014
  • Category: National Reports
  • Language: English
  • Upload date: 2016-02-16

  • The TEA for Ontario is the same as the Canadian average, and higher than the average among comparable countries such as the G7. The survey results also show that Ontarians believe opportunities for entrepreneurship are good in the province and that conditions to start a business in the near future are good. Almost half of all adult Ontarians believe they have the knowledge and skills to create a business. However, a larger proportion of Ontarians report that fear of failure will prevent them from starting a business, compared to other Canadians.
  • URL: http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49500
GEM Canada 2014 Report - Ontario
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